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Cis Jasmone

http://amcrasto.wix.com/anthony-melvin-crasto/apps/blog/cis-jasmone
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Jasmone is a natural organic compound extracted from the volatile portion of the oil fromjasmine flowers. It is a colorless to pale yellow liquid that has the odor of jasmine. Jasmone can exist in two isomeric forms with differing geometry around the pentenyl double bond, cis-jasmone and trans-jasmone. The natural extract contains only the cis form, while synthetic material is often a mixture containing both forms, with the cis form predominating. Both forms have similar odors and chemical properties.

Jasmone is produced within plants by the metabolism of jasmonate, from linolenic acid by the octadecanoid pathway. It can act as either an attractant or a repellent for various insects. Commercially jasmone is used primarily in perfumes and cosmetics.

An attempt to make Z jasmone – an important constituent of many perfumes

In fact one synthesis uses the following as carbon sources:

cis (Z) jasmone ,

cas no 488-10-8, 3-methyl-2-[(2Z)-pent-2-en-1-yl]cyclopent-2-en-1-one

ref-(Can. J. Chem. 1978, Vol 56, p2301)

1    W. Theilheimer. Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry. Volume 31, 1977, p. 352 
2   Tetrahedron, 39 (24), p. 4127, 1983

Thomas Koch, Katja Bandemer, Wilhelm Boland (1997). "Biosynthesis of cis-Jasmone: a pathway for the inactivation and the disposal of the plant stress hormone jasmonic acid to the gas phase?". Helvetica Chimica Acta 80 (3): 838–850.doi:10.1002/hlca.19970800318.

Predict NMR spectrum

Formula: C10H14O
CAS#: 488-10-8
MW: 150.22






New carbon-carbon bond in an organic reaction with the original functional groups completely disappearing

August 6, 2012



http://www.nature.com/nchem/journal/v2/n4/full/nchem.576.html
Mundal et al form a New carbon-carbon bond in an organic reaction with the original functional groups completelely dissapearing, boc protected allyl hydrazone, takes part in an triflimide catalysed sigmatropic reaction with subsequent loss of isobutylene, nitrogen gas and carbondioxide

Stereochemistry of [n,m] Sigmatropic Rearrangements

July 30, 2012



Stereochemistry of [n,m] Sigmatropic Rearrangements

Basically, [n,m] sigmatropic rearrangements can proceed through a chair or boat  transition state. Only the chair transition state has been observed experimentally though both are suprafacial and are allowed in 4n+2 electron systems.


Chair and boat transition states in [n,m] sigmatropic rearrangements
Fig.1Chair



Fig.2Boat



Examples for sigmatropic rearrangements with a chair transition state

 Fig.3Cope rearrangement

 



Fig.4[3,3] Sigmatropic

               
                        6 Electrons
                   
                        Hückel aromatic
                   
                        Supra-supra


 view animation, 2D Animation of the Cope rearrangement

try copy paste of link below, do not miss out on a beautiful animation


http://www.chemgapedia.de/vsengine/supplement/Vlu/vsc/en/ch/2/vlu/pericyclische_reaktionen/pericyclisch_sigmatrop.vlu/Page/vsc/en/ch/2/oc/reaktionen/formale_systematik/pericyclische_reaktionen/sigmatrop/stereochemie_n_m.vscml/Fragment/0d47d3304bb08cfd9c68c1c3590965d2-19.html


Large substituents similar to their behavior in chair conformations of cyclohexane rings prefer an equatorial configuration in the transition state of [3,3] sigmatropic reactions. Heating S,S-3,4-dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene to approximately 200°C  yields in 90% a product derived from a chair transition state with equatorial methyl groups.  The product arising from a diaxial conformation is formed in only 10% yield. Obviously, the reaction does not proceed through the boat transition state.

Enantiomeric Ibuprofen via Environmentally Benign Selective Crystallization

July 29, 2012
 Ibuprofen was developed by the Boots Group, a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom, in the 1950’s-1960s. It was discovered by Stewart Adams (along with John Nicholson, Andrew RM Dunlop, Jeffrey Bruce Wilson & Colin Burrows). The Boots group originally licensed Ibuprofen to two large drug companies. The first was Whitehall Laboratories (who sold the product as Advil) and the second was Upjohn who used Bristol-Meyers to market their product “Nuprin”. Boots held the patent until 1985 along with the rights to market it until 1986. Afterwards new products entered the market creating multiple new “generic” brands.





Selective crystallization of ibuprofen/lysinate from 1 mol of (R,S)-(racemic) ibuprofen and ≤0.5 mol of (S)-lysine in aqueous ethanol affords either (S)-(+)-ibuprofen/(S)-lysinate or (R)-ibuprofen/(S)-lysinate (in preponderance) depending on the crystallization conditions. The previously unreported temperature selective diastereo-recognition (TSD) provides simple and efficient means to prepare either enantiomer of ibuprofen from (R,S)-ibuprofen utilizing the same commercially available inexpensive resolving agent, (S)-lysine. The unwanted enantiomeric ibuprofen could be recovered from the mother liquor and racemized by a simple, relatively waste-free thermal process. This racemization method when utilized in conjunction with the selective crystallization technology provides a simple, efficient, and eco-friendly means to prepare (S)-(+)-ibuprofen lysinate in an overall essentially quantitative yield. This technology also incorporates the fundamental principle of atom economy (via direct production of the preferred pharmaceutical salt of (S)-lysine). Abstract Image 

Temperature Selective Diastereo-Recognition (TSD):  Enantiomeric Ibuprofen via Environmentally Benign Selective Crystallization

 see also
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aic.11087/abstract;jsessionid=D60C69E3DB7266BE103A2875A7FEA6C5.d02t03?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
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read more at
 http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-66322006000300003
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Citalopram/Escitalopram Oxalate, Isolation & Synthesis of Novel Impurities, Emcure paper

July 22, 2012

Citalopram

Citalopram  brand names: CelexaCipramil) is an antidepressantdrug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It has U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat major depression, and is prescribed off-label for a number of anxiety conditions.


Escitalopram (trade names NexitoAnxiset-E (India), Lexapro,CipralexSeroplexLexamilLexamEntactLosita(Bangladesh) Reposil (Chile)), is an antidepressant of theselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults and children over 12 years of age with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Escitalopram is the (S)-stereoisomer (enantiomer) of the earlier Lundbeck drugcitalopram

Citalopram/Escitalopram Oxalate: Isolation & Synthesis of Novel Impurities

READ AT
Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd, R & D Centre, Pimpri, Pune -411018, India

Abstract Image

During process optimization of Escitalopram oxalate novel impurities, 6 and 7 were observed, which were isolated and characterized, and the proposed structure was confirmed by chemical synthesis. Investigation of the cause of impurities formation improved the yield and purity of the drug product during the bulk API synthesis

SPECTROSCOPIC DATA IS AVAILABLE IN SUPPORTING INFORMATION FILE IN THE PAPER

ARTEMETHER, A FORCE AGAINST MALARIA

July 22, 2012



Artemether  
is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains offalciparum malaria. It is combined with Lumefantrine and sold by Novartis under the brand names Riamet and Co-Artem.


It is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin, which is a peroxide lactone isolated from theChinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. It is also known as dihydroartemisinin methyl ether, but its correct chemical nomenclature is (+)-(3-alpha,5a-beta,6-beta,8a-beta, 9-alpha,12-beta,12aR)-decahydro-10-methoxy-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12-epoxy-12H-pyrano(4,3-j)-1,2-benzodioxepin.


Artemether is highly effective against the blood schizonts of both malarial parasites P. falciparum and P. vivax. It is applied in combination with lumefantrine in clinical treatments of malaria
World Health Organization guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicatedfalciparum malaria recommend the use of this artemisinin-based combination therapy, and approved by Swissmedic in December 2008 and recently approved by the United StatesFood and Drug Administration.

Abstract Image

READ AT
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op300037e

A 70% overall yield from the two-step conversion of naturally or synthetically derived artemisinin to pure β-artemether is obtained. This corresponds to a usage factor of 1.35 kg of artemisinin needed to produce 1 kg of β-artemether, compared to the current industry average of 1.59 kg.

MITSONOBU (PTHALIMIDE)

July 22, 2012

 MECHANISM

Both cyclic and acyclic imides as well as hydrazoic acid (HN3) can be alkylated using the Mitsunobu reaction (see Mitsunobu, O. Synthesis 1981, 1).  The reaction generally proceeds with complete inversion of stereochemistry at the alcohol reacting center.


CONDITIONS


wt/vol
MW
Moles
density
equivs.
yield
I
0.471 g
212.36
0.0022

1.0

II
0.390 g
147.13
0.0027

1.2

III
0.695 g
262.29
0.0026

1.2

IV
0.459 g
174.16
0.0026

1.2.

V
10 mL
-
-



VI
0.565 g
341.48
0.0017


(75%)

Procedure:  100 mL 1-neck flask, stirbar, septum, N2 inlet
                  Dissolved 0.471 g of alcohol I in 10 mL of dry THF.  Stirred at rt. Added 0.459 g of DEAD followed by 0.695 g of Ph3P and 0.390 g of phthalimide. After 16 h, TLC (10:90 EtOAc-hexanes, PMA) shows unreacted starting material at Rf 0.35 and product spot at Rf 0.51.  Added an additional 0.088 g of phthalimide, 0.184 g of Ph3P and 0.144 g of DEAD.  After 5 h, the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation to give a viscous yellow oil.  The product was isolated by flash chromatography on silica gel using 10:90 EtOAc-hexanes as eluant.  The product was a clear, pale yellow oil. 

1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) d 7.79 (dd, J = 5.5, 3.1 Hz, ArH), 7.67 (dd, J = 5.5, 3.1 Hz, ArH), 5.69 (m, H2), 5.01 (dd, J = 17.1, 1.4 Hz, trans H1), 4.91 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, cis H1), 4.26 (tt, J = 10.1, 5.3 Hz, H4), 2.78 (m, H3), 2.47 (m, H3), 2.07 (m, H5), 1.71 (m, H5), 1.19 (m, CH2s), 0.84 (bt, J = 6.8 Hz, CH3)

Kharasch-Sosnovsky Reaction:

July 21, 2012

Kharasch-Sosnovsky Reaction:
copper catalysed allylic oxidation using an organic peroxide.
reported by M. S. Kharasch and George Sosnovsky in 1958 ((DOIDOI).
In the original publication the reactants are cyclohexene
reaction product is cyclohex-1-en-3-yl benzoate:
 

Mechanism: (review: DOI). The reaction mechanism devised
by Beckwith et al (DOI) contains the following steps:

 


THANKS AND REGARD'S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D
MOBILE-+91 9323115463
GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA
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[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon

July 16, 2012

[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon
REACTION MECHANISM
Starting point is to react the secondary amine with the aldehyde to form a cyclic imminium structure. Once generated, this is nicely set up to undergo a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon. The resulting formaldehyde imminium product is then hydrolyzed in the presence of water to afford the product plus an equivalent of formaldehyde





closer inspection, you can see that there is one less carbon in the product than the starting material. Furthermore, there are no reducing agents present, only acid (and presumably water)
 icon 

ENZYMATIC DIELS ALDER REACTION

July 12, 2012
Science Clipart


In a ground-breaking feat of protein engineering, US researchers have designed a synthetic enzyme that catalyses the Diels-Alder reaction - something that has not been seen in nature. The reaction is key to many organic syntheses and suggests that artificial enzymes could soon become part of the synthetic chemist's toolkit.

Catalysed Diels-Alder reaction

The Diels-Alder reaction - diene and dienophile undergo a pericyclic [4 + 2] cycloaddition to form a chiral cyclohexene ring. The image also shows the design target active site, with hydrogen bond acceptor and donor groups activating the diene and dienophile and a complementary binding pocket holding the two substrates in an orientation optimal for catalysis

Science
Vol. 329 no. 5989 pp. 309-313 
DOI: 10.1126/science.1190239

Eugenol -------major volatile constituent of clove essential oil

July 9, 2012

Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule


Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

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